Thursday, November 27, 2008

THE MOST DESTRUCTIVE WAR IN HISTORY



SBD "Dauntless" dive bombers from USS Hornet (CV-8)
Battle of Midway
enlarged from a 16mm color motion picture film
Original uploader Palm dogg at wikipedia


Assault troops await orders on D-day
From The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration


Advance behind a tank assault
From The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration



World War II, one the darkest periods in the history of the world, raged from 1939 to 1945 and involved almost the entire world.
Countries were destroyed, created or changed forever. Fifty million people lost their lives between 1939 and 1945 and hundreds of millions more suffered injuries and wounds. Yet many today do not know when, where, or by whom the war was fought or that their fathers and grandfathers fought battles from the volcanic islands of the South Pacific Ocean to the icy waters of the North Atlantic; or from the jungles of Burma to the deserts of North Africa; or from the grassy steppes of Russia to the skies over Britain.
(Copyright © 2008 OSU Department of History)
World war II was fought predominantly in Europe and across the Pacific and eastern Asia, and pitted the Axis powers of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan against the Allied nations of Great Britain, France, China, the United States, and Soviet Union. While the Axis enjoyed early success, they were gradually beaten back, with both Italy and Germany falling to Allied troops and Japan surrendering after the use of the atomic bomb.
The seeds of World War II were sown in the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I. Crippled economically by the terms of the treaty and the Great Depression, Germany embraced the fascist Nazi Party. Led by Adolf Hitler, the rise of the Nazi party mirrored the ascent of Benito Mussolini's fascist government in Italy. Taking total control of the government in 1933, Hitler remilitarized Germany, stressed racial purity, and sought "living space" for the German people. In 1938, he annexed Austria and bullied Britain and France into allowing him to take the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. The following year, Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union and invaded Poland on September 1, beginning the war.
On September 1, the beginning of the German attack, Great Britain and France sent Hitler an ultimatum - withdraw German forces from Poland or Great Britain and France would go to war against Germany.
On September 3, with Germany's forces penetrating deeper into Poland, Great Britain and France both declared war on Germany.
World War II had begun.
(©2008 About.com, a part of The New York Times Company)



German conquests in Europe during World War II.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Benito Mussolini & Adolf Hitler, 1940
Photograph Courtesy of
the National Archives & Records Administration



When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States of America was forced to emerge from years of isolationism and enter the worst conflict in world history.
Early U.S. involvement in the war was on an indirect level, as America delivered valuable supplies to Allied comrades. However, that involvement became official after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, a day that in the immortal words of President Franklin D. Roosevelt would "live in infamy." With U.S. aid, the Allies began to recapture the territory which had been lost to the Nazis in the early days of the war. Victories in North Africa and Sicily in 1943 exerted pressure on the Axis powers, and Italy ceased to be an enemy after Mussolini was ousted in the summer of 1943.
American, British, and Canadian troops invaded German-occupied France on June 6, 1944 -- an event which would forever be known as D-Day. The invasion and subsequent Battle of the Bulge in the winter of 1944 eventually turned the tide of the war in favor of the Allies. Germany's defeat became a foregone conclusion when Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945; final surrender would come eight days later.
In the Pacific Theater, the U.S. and Japan waged a back-and-forth struggle, with Japan scoring early victories in the Philippines and the South Pacific. The U.S. halted the Japanese advance at the Battle of Midway on June 5, 1942, one of the first battles in naval history where neither of the main fleets came within sight of each other. Fierce fighting in Guadalcanal and Iwo Jima ensued, with the Allies coming out on top only after heavy losses. The Battle of the Philippines in 1944 was the beginning of the end for Japan, as the Japanese Navy was all but wiped out by Allied forces.
Fire bombs were dropped on Tokyo and other Japanese cities in early 1945, but despite the damage, Japan was still reluctant to concede defeat. U.S. President Harry Truman subsequently authorized the dropping of atom bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which occurred on August 6 and 9, 1945. Japan surrendered unconditionally on September 2, 1945.
The statistical results of World War II were stunning.: all told, approximately 61 million people lost their lives, with the Soviet Union (over 25 million) and China (11 million) suffering the most fatalities, most of them civilians. As a result of the war, the United States emerged as the world's leading military and economic power, and geopolitical boundaries changed radically, with the Soviet Union controlling most of Eastern Europe. The strained relations between these two nations would set the stage for the Cold War, which would define global politics for decades to come.
(©2008 Military Advantage)

Greatest Loss of Military Forces by Country in World War II:
1. Soviet Union 7,500,000
2. Germany 3,250,000
3. Japan 1,500,000
4. China 1,300,000 (estimation)
5. Britain 326,000
6. United States 292,000
Content provided by: Larry Gormley, HistoryShots
Source(s): The Historical Atlas of World War II, John Pimlot
Copyright © 2008 OSU Department of History

Bomber Production in World War II:
Year Germany Britain United States
1 1940 2,852 3,488 0
2 1941 3,373 4,668 0
3 1942 4,502 6,253 12,627
4 1943 4,800(est) 7,600(est) 29,365
5 1944 2,300(est)
Content provided by: Larry Gormley, HistoryShots
Copyright © 2008 OSU Department of History

Best Tanks of World War II:
Tank Model Country
1 T34 Soviet Union
2 Sherman United States
3 Panther German
4 Panzer IV German
5 Lee/Grant United States
6 Tiger I German
7 Churchill Britain
8 KV I Soviet Union
9 Matilda II Britain
Content provided by: Sanders Marbles
Copyright © 2008 OSU Department of History

World War II Timeline Picture Indexes:
1938 - 1939 - 1940 - 1941 - 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945 images
Air War 1943 images
Air War 1944 images
Atlantic Battle images
Balkan Front images
Bataan Pictures
Casablanca Conference 1943 images
China Front images
Dilbert 1943 images
Eastern Front images
FDR images
FDR Memorial
German Armor
Italian Front images
Landing Craft images
Lendlease, Teheran, China images
North Africa 1942 images
Nuremberg images
Sicily 1943 images
Spanish Civil War 1936-39 images

When most people think of the images of World War II, they think in black in white. From the image of American G.I.s raising a flag over Iwo Jima to the picture of Russian soldiers on the Reichstag, most of the public photos from the war are in shades of grey. But that doesn't mean color photos weren't taken. In a new book, DER SPIEGEL presents 330 largely-unknown full color images from the last world war: Multimedia: Pictures of World War II (click here)

WWII pictures
From home.quicknet.nl

Esso WWII Pictures
From armed-guard.com

http://www.warofourfathers.com/
Photographs of the Pacific Battlefields of WWII by Richard Marin

Further reading:
The Home Front Volume I by Nancy M. Taylor NZ official history (1986)
The Home Front Volume II by Nancy M. Taylor NZ official history (1986)
Political and External Affairs by Frederick Lloyd Whitfeld (1958) NZ official history
© 2008 Victoria University of Wellington

British War Economy
By W. K. Hancock
Fellow of All Souls, Oxford; Chichele Professor of Economic History
and M. M. Gowing, B.Sc. (Econ.)
LONDON 1949
HMSO
Edited by W.K. HANCOCK
(Source: ibiblio.org)

Statistical Digest of the War
Transcribed and formatted for HTML by David Newton for the HyperWar Foundation
PREPARED IN THE CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE
LONDON 1951
HMSO AND LONGMANS GREEN AND CO.
Edited by W.K. HANCOCK
(Source: ibiblio.org)

British War Production
By M. M. Postan
Fellow of Peterhouse, Professor of Economic History in the University of Cambridge
LONDON 1952
HMSO
Edited by W.K. HANCOCK
(Source: ibiblio.org)

Problems of Social Policy
By Richard M. Titmuss
LONDON 1950
HMSO
Edited by W.K. HANCOCK
(Source: ibiblio.org)

WWII Timeline 1917-45
(Source: history.sandiego.edu)



Wednesday, November 26, 2008

GARY COOPER



From virtual-history.com


Postcards: Ross Verlag
From virtual-history.com



"Dad was a true Westerner, and I take after him", Gary Cooper told people who wanted to know more about his life before Hollywood. Dad was Charles Henry Cooper, who left his native England at 19, became a lawyer and later a Montana State Supreme Court justice. In 1906, when Gary was 5, his dad bought the Seven-Bar-Nine, a 600-acre ranch that had originally been a land grant to the builders of the railroad through that part of Montana. In 1910, Gary's mother, who had been ill, was advised to take a long sea voyage by her doctor. She went to England and stayed there until the United States entered World War I. Gary and his older brother Arthur stayed with their mother and went to school in England for seven years. Too young to go to war, Gary spent the war years working on his father's ranch. "Getting up at 5 o'clock in the morning in the dead of winter to feed 450 head of cattle and shoveling manure at 40 below ain't romantic", said the man who would take the Western to the top of its genre in High Noon (1952). So well liked was Cooper that he aroused little envy when, in 1939, the U.S. Treasury Department said that he was the nation's top wage earner. That year he earned $482,819. This tall, silent hero was the American ideal for many people of his generation. Ernest Hemingway who lived his novels before he wrote them, was happy to have Gary Cooper play his protagonists in A Farewell to Arms (1932) and For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943).
(Copyright © 1990-2008 IMDb.com, Inc.)
Strong and silent with steely gray eyes, Gary Cooper walked out of the wide open West to become one of Hollywood's most rugged symbols of masculinity. From the 1920s through the '50s, Coop played extraordinary heroes and ordinary Americans.
In real life, Cooper was a true Westerner, not merely an onscreen cowboy. He was born on a Montana ranch and, after learning how to ride and rope cattle, he was sent off to attend a prestigious school in England. Soon the taciturn boy came to embody the age-old struggle between mannered culture and the untamed frontier.
As a young man, Cooper aspired to become a political cartoonist, but after having trouble securing work, he found quick cash as a cowboy extra in silent movies. His refined ruggedness attracted the attention of the lusty 'It' girl, Clara Bow. Bow kept her handsome hunk close at hand, and Coop made brief appearances in It (1927) and Wings (1927). By the coming of sound, Bow's career was on the decline as Cooper was becoming a favorite of audiences after his first talking picture, The Virginian (1929). With his laid-back western twang, Cooper was ideally cast as an American hero, an Everyman that everyone could identify with and look up to.
-by Eremy Geltzer
(TM & © 2008 Turner Classic Movies, A Time Warner Company)


Greiling Serie C (1951)
From virtual-history.com



Frank James “Gary” Cooper (May 7 1901 – May 13 1961) was an American film actor and iconic star. He was renowned for his quiet, understated acting style and his stoic, individualistic, emotionally restrained, but at times intense screen persona, which was particularly well suited to the many Westerns he made. His career spanned from 1925 until shortly before his death, and comprised more than one hundred films.
During his lifetime, Cooper received five Academy Award nominations for Best Actor, winning twice, for Sergeant York and High Noon. He also received an Honorary Award in 1961 from the Academy.

The Sergeant York Review
From homevideos.com

The HIGH NOON Review
From homevideos.com


If the Academy gave out an award for the best performance by an inanimate object in 1952, the clocks in the overheated Western melodrama High Noon would have won in a landslide. A drinking game could be devised where participants down a shot every time a character in the film glances at a watch or a clock to reiterate that time is running out for anxious sheriff Gary Cooper, whose moment of reckoning is 50, no 40, no 30, no 20 minutes away. Yet despite the preponderance of clock-watching in the film, it's curiously lacking in dramatic tension until a justly famous climax. For the threat Cooper faces seldom emerges as anything more than abstract. Sticks and stones may break bones but ideological abstractions will never hurt you. In an Oscar-winning turn, Cooper plays a tormented lawman in the midst of the most dramatic 90 minutes of his...
Review by Nathan Rabin
June 11th, 2008
(Copyright © 1990-2008 IMDb.com, Inc.)
For his contribution to the film industry, Gary Cooper has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6243 Hollywood Blvd. In 1966, he was inducted into the Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He was mentioned in the lyrics to Irving Berlin's song "Puttin' on the Ritz": "Trying hard to look like Gary Cooper, (super duper)".
Charlton Heston often cited Cooper as a childhood role model, and later worked with him on The Wreck of the Mary Deare (1959).
-From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Photographs of Gary Cooper
From virtual-history.com

Gary Cooper - Wikimedia Commons
Photographs and film images

MORE of Gary Cooper



Honorary Awards:
1953 Won Oscar Best Actor for: High Noon (1952)
1944 Nominated Best Actor for: For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943)
1943 Nominated Best Actor for: Pride of the Yankees, The (1942)
1942 Won Oscar Best Actor for: Sergeant York (1941)
1937 Nominated Best Actor for: Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936)

Selected Movies:
High Noon (1952)
Sergeant York (1941)
Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936)
Meet John Doe (1941)
Pride of the Yankees, The (1942)
Westerner, The (1940)
Ball of Fire (1941)


Family:
FATHER: Charles Henry Cooper. Lawyer, rancher, judge. British-born; moved to the USA at age 19; settled in Montana; practiced law and eventually served on the Montana State Supreme Court; purchased the Seven-Bar-Nine ranch c. 1906; died in 1946.
MOTHER: Alice Cooper. British; returned to England with her two sons in 1910, purportedly for health reasons; returned to the USA after seven years during WWI; survived him.
BROTHER: Arthur Cooper. Born in 1895; survived him.
DAUGHTER: Maria Veronica Balfe Cooper. Author. Married to composer Byron Janis c. 1966 and from whom she separated in 1996.
COMPANION: Clara Bow. Actor. Appeared together in "It" (1927) and three other movies; had relationship in the late 1920s.
COMPANION: Anderson Lawler. Actor. Contract player with Paramount; lived together in 1929.
COMPANION: Lupe Velez. Actor. Co-starred with Cooper in "Wolf Song" (1929) and shared a Laurel Canyon hideaway with him; his mother disapproved and came between the pair.
COMPANION: Evelyn Brent. Actor. Cooper's mother said, "Evelyn has been good to Gary; she has given him poise, she has taught him to think; her influence has been excellent, and I will always regard her with affection and gratitude"; the pair worked together on "Beau Sabreur" (1926) and "Paramount on Parade" (1930).
COMPANION: Countess Dorothy di Frasso. American-born daughter of multi-millionaire Bertrand L Taylor.
WIFE: Veronica Balfe. Actor, socialite. Born c. 1912 introduced to society in 1931; met Cooper when she was a teenager living at the home of Cedric Gibbons and Dolores Del Rio; married on December 15, 1933; separated briefly in 1951; reconciled and remained together until his death in 1961; acted in only two films ("King Kong" and "Blood Money", both 1933); died on February 18, 2000.
COMPANION: Marlene Dietrich. Actor. Met during filming of "Morocco" (1930); Cooper's wife served Dietrich with a writ during divorce proceedings; writ later dropped.
COMPANION: Patricia Neal. Actor. Appeared in three films together in 1949-50, including "The Fountainhead"; had affair which led to Cooper's separation from his wife; relationship ended c. 1951.
(Source: TM & © 2008 Turner Classic Movies, A Time Warner Company)

A large photo album highlights this salute to Gary Cooper which also contains Mr. Cooper's filmography and quotes:
A Gary Cooper Biography
The Gary Cooper Filmography
A Gary Cooper Photograph Album
Gary Cooper Quotation Page
From Gary Cooper web pages © 1997 by Jerry Lansche

PAGES ON THE WEB:
Gary Cooper - Coop Forever
geocities.com

My Gary Cooper Pages
thegoldenyears.org


Added by: Ray Langert
8/10/2001
From findagrave.com


Tuesday, November 25, 2008

MAN OF INFLUENCE



Dale Carnegie found he had an aptitude for reciting, and while in high school joined the debating team. He became so impressed with the style of a speaker at a Chautauqua lecture that he decided to emulate him. It is said he practiced recitations on the horse he rode to and from college.
Mr. Carnegie was born in poverty on a Missouri farm, but found that a silver tongue could be more useful than a silver spoon in winning wealth and fame.
-OBITUARY By THE NEW YORK TIMES, November 2, 1955 Source: Copyright 2008 The New York Times Company)
Dale Carnegie, the legendary 20th Century American author, educator and public speaker, is best known as the author of “How to Win Friends and Influence People,” which has sold over 15 million copies through many editions and remains popular today.
This grandfather of all people-skills books was first published in 1937. It was an overnight hit, eventually selling 15 million copies. How to Win Friends and Influence People is just as useful today as it was when it was first published, because Dale Carnegie had an understanding of human nature that will never be outdated. Financial success, Carnegie believed, is due 15 percent to professional knowledge and 85 percent to "the ability to express ideas, to assume leadership, and to arouse enthusiasm among people." He teaches these skills through underlying principles of dealing with people so that they feel important and appreciated. He also emphasizes fundamental techniques for handling people without making them feel manipulated. Carnegie says you can make someone want to do what you want them to by seeing the situation from the other person's point of view and "arousing in the other person an eager want." You learn how to make people like you, win people over to your way of thinking, and change people without causing offense or arousing resentment. For instance, "let the other person feel that the idea is his or hers," and "talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person." Carnegie illustrates his points with anecdotes of historical figures, leaders of the business world, and everyday folks.
(Copyright © 2008 PayLoadz, Inc)




Dale Carnegie - inspirational words of wisdom
(C) Online motivator 2007


He was born Dale Carnegey in Maryville, Missouri, on November 24, 1888, the son of a poor farmer. As a boy, Dale found that he had a natural talent for public speaking. He went to New York to make a career in public speaking. Starting at $2 per night teaching public speaking classes at the YMCA, Dale quickly made a name for himself and was soon lecturing to packed houses, earning $500 weekly at the age of 24, an impressive income at that time. When he booked one of his lectures into New York’s famous Carnegie Hall, he changed his name from “Carnegey” to “Carnegie” to take advantage of the famous location and adopt the more popular spelling of his name. He began to write instructional pamphlets to sell in addition to his speaking services. After several years he was able to turn the pamphlets into his first book: “Public Speaking: A Practical Course for Business Men.” The success of his initial works inspired Dale to publish his most famous book in 1936, “How to Win Friends and Influence People.” Regarded as the first modern self-help book, it embodied Carnegie's advice on dealing with others, summarized by one reviewer as "Smile, be friendly, never argue or find fault, or tell a person he is wrong."
(Source: findagrave.com)


Book Description and How This Book Was Written And Why,
by Dale Carnegie:
How to Win Friends and Influence People


Carnegie was an early proponent of what is now called responsibility assumption, although this only appears minutely in his written work. One of the core ideas in his books is that it is possible to change other people's behavior by changing one's reaction to them. Responsibility assumption is a doctrine in the personal growth field holding that each individual has substantial or total responsibility for the events and circumstances that befall them in their life. While there is little that is notable about the notion that each person has at least some role in shaping their experience, the doctrine of responsibility assumption posits that the individual's mental contribution to his or her own experience is substantially greater than is normally thought. "I must have wanted this" is the type of catchphrase used by adherents of this doctrine when encountering situations, pleasant or unpleasant, to remind them that their own desires and choices led to the present outcome.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Dale Carnegie's summaries of his books:
How to Win Friends and Influence People
How to Stop Worrying and Start Living
The Quick and Easy Way to Effective Speaking by Dorothy Carnegie
Don't Grow Old - Grow Up! by Dorothy Carnegie
(Source: The Dale Carnegie Page, westegg.com)

Henrik Edberg Top ten favoutite quotes by Dale Carnegie:
1. Create your own emotions.
“If you want to be enthusiastic, act enthusiastic.”
2. It’s not so much about the logical stuff.
“When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but creatures of emotion.”
3. Three things you are better off avoiding.
“Any fool can criticize, condemn, and complain but it takes character and self control to be understanding and forgiving.”
4. What is most important?
“The royal road to a man’s heart is to talk to him about the things he treasures most.”
5. Focus outward, not inward.
“You can make more friends in two months by becoming interested in other people than you can in two years by trying to get other people interested in you.”
6. Take control of your emotions.
“The person who seeks all their applause from outside has their happiness in another’s keeping.”
7. No, they are not holding you back.
“Instead of worrying about what people say of you, why not spend time trying to accomplish something they will admire.”
8. So, what’s in it for me?
“There is only one way… to get anybody to do anything. And that is by making the other person want to do it.”
9. How to win an argument.
“The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it.”
10. It’s about more than your words.
“There are four ways, and only four ways, in which we have contact with the world. We are evaluated and classified by these four contacts: what we do, how we look, what we say, and how we say it.”
(Source: The Positivity Blog. Copyright 2006-Present Henrik Edberg)



Added by: E.J. Stephens
7/4/1999
Image from findagrave.com


Monday, November 24, 2008

JEAN-LEON GEROME



Jean-Léon Gérôme
Self Portrait, 1886
Oil on Canvas
Current location: Aberdeen Art Gallery
Image courtesy of the Art Renewal Center



Charley Parker wrote in linesandcolors.com, 'Anyone who is interested in concept art for films or games, particularly if it involves near-eastern themes in games like Prince of Persia, should be aware of 19th Century painter Jean-Léon Gérôme, if you aren’t already. Likewise, anyone with in interest in Victorian art, the Pre-Raphaelites or 19th Century academic art in general would enjoy Gérôme’s beautifully painted scenes of mosques, minarets and Eqyptian rooftops, as well as his depictions of Imperial Rome. Gérôme excelled at the portrayal of these subjects, but at times exhibited an almost National Geographic style reportage of the inside of mosques and cityscapes, in contrast to his more exploitative harem scenes. Prayer in the Mosque was probably painted from sketches made on one of his many trips to Egypt. The painting is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.'



Public Prayer in the Mosque of Amr, Cairo
Oil on canvas, 1870
Private collection
Image courtesy of the Art Renewal Center



Gérome’s father, a goldsmith from Vésoul, discouraged his son from studying to become a painter but agreed, reluctantly, to allow him a trial period in the studio of Paul Delaroche in Paris. Gérôme proved his worth, remaining with Delaroche from 1840 to 1843. When Delaroche closed the studio in 1843, Gérôme followed his master to Italy. Pompeii meant more to him than Florence or the Vatican, but the world of nature, which he studied constantly in Italy, meant more to him than all three. An attack of fever brought him back to Paris in 1844. He then studied, briefly, with Charles Gleyre, who had taken over the pupils of Delaroche. Gérôme attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and entered the Prix de Rome competition as a way of going back to Italy. In 1846 he failed to qualify for the final stage because of his inadequate ability in figure drawing. To improve his chances in the following year’s competition, he painted an academic exercise of two large figures, a nude youth, crouching in the pose of of Chaudet’s marble Eros (1817; Paris, Louvre), and a lightly draped young girl whose graceful mannerism recalls the work of Gérôme’s colleagues from the studio of Delaroche. Gérôme added two fighting cocks (he was very fond of animals) and a blue landscape reminiscent of the Bay of Naples. Delaroche encouraged Gérôme to send The Cockfight (1846; Paris, Louvre) to the Salon of 1847, where it was discovered by the critic Théophile Thoré (but too late to buy it) and made famous by Théophile Gautier. The picture pleased because it dealt with a theme from Classical antiquity in a manner that owed nothing to the unfashionable mannerisms of David’s pupils. Moreover, it placed Gérôme at the head of the NÉO-GREC movement, which consisted largely of fellow pupils of Gleyre, such as Henri-Pierre Picou (1824–95) and Jean-Louis Hamon.
(Source: all-art.org)



'Un Combat de Coqs'
Scanned from pre-WWI book
by User: Lee M
Courtesy: PD-Art
Courtesy of Jean-Léon Gérôme in all-art.org



Arabs Crossing the Desert
Oil on canvas, 1870
Private collection
Image courtesy of the Art Renewal Center



Polyphemus
Oil on canvas
Private collection
Image courtesy of the Art Renewal Center



"An Arab Caravan outside a Fortified Town, Egypt"
Oil on canvas
Private collection
Image courtesy of the Art Renewal Center




Gerome travelled widely in Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. A sculptor as well as a painter, his female figures have the same classical precision of Ingres, but are in much more realistic poses. His best-known works are his oriental scenes. Two typical examples are in the Wallace Collection, London. They won Gerome great popularity and he had considerable influence as an upholder of academic tradition and enemy of progressive trends in art. He was not a big fan of Impressionist art.
(Bat Guano Web Works ®)


The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer
Oil on canvas, 1883
Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore
Image courtesy of the Art Renewal Center



The Christian Martyrs’ Last Prayer was commissioned from Gérôme by William T. Walters of Baltimore around 1860. When finally finished in 1883, Gérôme sent a letter along with the painting explaining his delay: “I regret to have made you wait for it so long, but I had a difficult task, being determined not to leave it until I accomplished all of which I was capable. This picture has been upon my easel for over twenty years. I have repainted it from the beginning three times. This, therefore, is really the third canvas, which you receive” (Catalogue of Paintings [Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 1929?], 38-39). That third canvas is now in the Walters Art Gallery. The historic scene depicted takes place in the Circus Maximus in Rome.
The Museum’s unfinished painting is one of the two earlier versions referred to by Gérôme and gives insight into the artist’s academic method. The visible grid lines were used to enlarge a smaller sketch accurately; they demonstrate the extent to which drawing formed the basis for his work. Thin layers of carefully applied paint establish compositional values. One can see that Gérôme originally painted the martyrs in the foreground, as the figures can faintly be seen. Gérôme painted over them and inserted the group farther back in the composition. This painting captures the dramatic moment at which the animals appear before the public. In the left foreground a fearsome lion emerges from a subterranean chamber, soon to be followed by another lion and a tiger. Christians of all ages huddle in prayer around a patriarchal figure. In the final version, other believers are bound to crosses and burned, a method of execution common during Nero’s reign. An extremely influential painter and teacher in his day, Gérôme continued the traditions of academic realism into the late nineteenth century.
(Source: : Cody Dingus, Utah Museum of Fine Arts,
University of Utah, Updated: January 5, 2004 º Webmaster)


The Age of Augustus
Oil on canvas
Private collection



In the late 1840s the French government gave Gerome a monumental commission to paint the massive Age of Augustus. In preparation for this commission, he traveled extensively in Europe and Asia Minor, documenting the customs of various regions. He spent two years working on the painting, tirelessly perfecting details of the various ethnic groups. With the money realized from this work, Gerome spent several months traveling and sketching in Egypt. Gerome's highly finished mythological and history paintings were anecdotal, painstaking, often melodramatic, and frequently erotic. For the last twenty-five years of his life, he concentrated on sculpture. His studio became a meeting place for artists, actors, and writers, and he was appointed a professor at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Gerome became a legendary and respected master, noted for his sardonic wit, lax discipline, regimented teaching methods.
(Source: Oil Paintings Gallery, Alpharetta, Georgia)


Napoleon in Egypt
ca. 1867-68
Oil on canvas
© Princeton University Art Museum
©2008 About.com, a part of The New York Times Company



France's Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) invaded Egypt in July 1798 with 400 ships and 55,000 soldiers in an attempt to control the commercial land route to India and deal a significant blow to Britain's economy. During the relatively brief period of the French occupation (his troops surrendered to the British in September 1801), Napoleon encouraged more than 150 artists, engineers, mathematicians, naturalists and scientists (savants) to record with exacting precision Egypt's buildings, its monuments, flora, fauna and terrain as well as the region's society and forms of commerce.
What resulted was the Déscription de l'Égypte (1809-1822), the multi-volume compendium on ancient and modern Egypt. Its scholarly contents and plate illustrations contributed to the development of Egyptology. Editions of the work influenced the nineteenth-century Orientalist movement in European painting. It has also figured largely in Egyptomania (the periodic fascination with things Egyptian) for more than 200 years.
(Source: ©2008 About.com, a part of The New York Times Company)


Near 300 images by the artist:
http://www.jeanleongerome.org/

Jean-Leon Gerome Paintings:
http://www.orientalist-art.org.uk/gerome.html



Jean-Léon Gérôme from allpaintings on Vimeo
©2008 Vimeo, LLC (Music: Kroke - Light In The Darkness)



Gerome was the aficionado of antiquity, inspiring him on creation of many paintings. And further antiquity, alongside with Lui's XIV history and Napoleon, had been given plots to his illustrative works. He traveled a lot and was obedient picturesque exotic of suits and landscapes; the Arabian equestrians became steel his favourite theme (agniart.ru)
'Gérome's imagination was earthbound and yet he was known for his romanticizing. Carrying forward the whacky mix, his work often was exquisite, yet strangely pedestrian and nearly always, felt staged.
One critic of the time said that, in his paintings, Gérome had more feeling invested in the marble than in the human beings being portrayed.
Visually, his paintings are still gorgeous works, a joy to look at - so deep runs the power of painting to create a world - so powerful is pure craft - even if it only creates a material world, a dazzling material world' - Ira Altschiller

Friday, November 21, 2008

THE WAR TO END ALL WARS



WWI or World War I (also known as the First World War , the Great War, and the "War to End All Wars") was a conflict that lasted from 1914 to 1918.


An Australian Observation Post
Fleurbaix
Painting by William Barnes Wollen
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


The Battle of Zonnebeke, Flanders
Summer of 1917
Picture made by Frank Hurley
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


A Trainload of Soldiers
Photograph problably made in Flanders
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Outlook
Looking out from the entrance of a captured Pill-Box
Photographer Frank Hurley
Picture made in 1917/1918
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Fragile Air Force
French bi-plane
The pilot: Georges Mailfert
Companion: Sergeant Gabriel Darbost
Photographed before June 1914
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Chemical weapons, like poison gas were used for the first time, the first mass bombardment of civilians from the sky was executed, and some of the century's first genocides took place during the war. No previous conflict had mobilized so many soldiers, or involved so many in the field of battle. Never before had casualties been so high. WWI was also a war of change, a last blow to the old order in Europe to pave way for the new. Dynasties such as the Habsburgs, Romanovs, and Hohenzollerns, who had dominated the European political landscape and had roots of power back to the days of the Crusades, all fell after the four-year war. Many of the events and phenomena that would dominate the world of the twentieth century can trace their origins to WWI — including Communism, World WarII and even the Cold War.
(Source: www.worldwar1-history.com)
The build up to WWI is a period of time known to historians as the "long fuse", a period of approximately 85 years beginning in the mid 19 century. Europe at the time was a very different place to what it is today, not just politically but geographically also. Countries that existed then no longer exist today and countries that exist today didn't exist then. Few countries had the same borders then as they do today. The dominant forces in Europe were Germany, France and the British, Russian, Austro-Hungarian (Habsburg) and Ottoman Empires. WWI was very much a clash of these empires and soon after the WWI, three of these empires would cease to exist. It was realised that it would only take one country to be attacked for the series of alliances to be called on, one by one and like dominoes they would all be involved.
(The Prelude to WW1 by Dean Hunter)
Alliances:
1879 The Dual Alliance. Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia
1881 Austro-Serbian Alliance. Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia
1882 The Triple Alliance. Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia
1894 Franco-Russian Alliance. Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary
1904 Entente Cordiale. This was an agreement, but not a formal alliance, between France and Britain.
1907 Anglo-Russian Entente. This was an agreement between Britain and Russia
1907 Triple Entente. This was made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increasing threat from Germany
1914 Triple Entente (no separate peace). Britain, Russia and France agreed not to sign for peace separately.
(Source: Copyright © Historyonthenet 2000-2008 All rights reserved
Site created November 2000
Updated 10/03/2007)
Amongst the people across the world who greeted the declaration of War in 1914 with enthusiasm were many underage boys, some as young as 12 years old from just about all the allied countries involved. Everyone knew that the 'War would be over soon" and here was an opportunity for great adventure.


Ambulance
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Soldier's Lunch
A French soldier at the Place Royal in the city of Reims, France
Picture made in spring 1917.
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


The trenches of J.R.R. Tolkien(A Batallion Signaling Officer)
The colored postcard
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Daughters of Flanders' Slain
Orphanage in Northern France
Image by unknown American photographer, 1917
published in the National Geographic
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Blinded Gas casualties
British 55th (West Lancashire) Division
Advanced Dressing Station near Bethune
France.
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


British Highlanders with a bagpipe player
Picture made in 1916
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


...in a bucket, dear Heinrich, in a bucket
German soldier in a waterfilled trench
Vicinity of Ypres, Flanders (Belgium)
picture made in November 1915
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Windy outpost
Westhoek Ridge (Flanders, Belgium)
Ist day of the Third Battle of Ypres
On July 31, 1917
Image by Frank Hurley
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Victor Silvester wrote about his experiences in the First World War in his autobiography 'Dancing Is My Life':
'I soon discovered that the war was very different to what I expected. We went up into the front-line near Arras, through sodden and devastated countryside. As we were moving up to our sector along the communication trenches, a shell burst ahead of me and one of my platoon dropped. He was the first man I ever saw killed. Both his legs were blown off and the whole of his face and body was peppered with shrapnel. The sight turned my stomach. I was sick and terrified, but even more frightened of showing it.
The mood of the country was one of almost hysterical patriotism, and no excuses were accepted for any man of military age who was not in uniform. Rude remarks were made about them in the streets. Sometimes they were given white feathers.
WWI saw the manifestation of an illness never before experienced - - - Shell-shock. The army did not recognize it for some time. Even then, some senior officers took the view that claims of shell-shock were simply cowardice. There were differing views on its cause and it was suggested that the only cure was a complete rest away from the fighting. A much larger number of soldiers with these symptoms were classified as 'malingerers' and sent back to the front-line. In some cases men committed suicide. Others broke down under the pressure and refused to obey the orders of their officers. Some responded to the pressures of shell-shock by deserting. Sometimes soldiers who disobeyed orders got shot on the spot. In some cases, soldiers were court-martialled and shot.





A common punishment for disobeying orders was 'Field Punishment Number One'. This involved the offender being attached to a fixed object for up to two hours a day and for a period up to three months. These men were often put in a place within range of enemy shell-fire.'
(Source: anzacs.net)


German Dreadnought battleship SMS Westfalen
Image from 1998-2006 worldwar1.co.uk


'Because the Great War was a mad, brutal, awful struggle, distinguished more often than not by military and political incompetence: because the waste of human life was so terrible that some said victory was scarcely discernible from defeat; and because the war which was supposed to end all wars in fact sowed the seeds of a second, even more terrible, war.'
(Part of a speech by the then Prime Minister of Australia
Mr. P.J. Keating on 11th November 1993
Speechwriter: Don Watson)

May 7, 1917, just an ordinary day
Image by a French army photographer
May 7, 1917
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR

The famous French painter Jean Despujols, who as a soldier happened to be there, made a sketch of the same situation.

'As will the expressions of monumental sadness from all old soldiers who have first hand experience of battle and the oppressive futility of war. It is said that those who do not learn from their mistakes are condemned to repeat them' - John Woods, Editor.


The Shell-Shattered Area of Chateau Wood, Flanders
Picture by Frank Hurley, 1917
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR



Unseen WWI pictures released:
Photographs taken by Kapitän zur See Karl Boy-Ed, 1913
Some Great War photos taken by James Robert Halliday, RN
Photos by John Prouse
Photos by John H. Rogers
Photographs of the US Navy's 14" Railway Guns on the Western Front


"If music be the food of love… play on"
British band and guard of honour,
August 1918
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR


Always someone's father
Always someone's son
German War Cemetery
Village of Saint Laurent-Blangy
North-East of the City of Arras
From THE HERITAGE OF THE GREAT WAR

Wednesday, November 19, 2008

DEATH AND BURIAL



The ancient Pyramids of Egypt
All Gizah Pyramids in one shot
June 19, 2006 at 14:01
Author: Ricardo Liberato
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids: first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu, the only remaining Wonder of the World. The largest pyramid ever built, by volume, is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. This pyramid is considered the largest monument ever constructed anywhere in the world, and is still being excavated. The greatest pyramids (or most well known ones) are in Egypt but there have been many other pyramids all over the world but none quite so big. Strangely though, they all seem to be linked in with death and burial.
The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids (top picture) — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the largest man-made constructions. There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008.It was one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, though many of the stones used for the purpose have fallen or been removed for other structures.
(Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)



Inside Snofru's Red Pyramid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Kheops Pyramid
The Great Pyramid of Giza c. 2560 B.C.,
the oldest and largest of the three pyramids,
The Giza Necropolis
© 2005 Nina Aldin Thune - Nina
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Who Built the Pyramids?
Contrary to some popular depictions, the pyramid builders were not slaves or foreigners. Excavated skeletons show that they were Egyptians who lived in villages developed and overseen by the pharaoh's supervisors.
The builders' villages boasted bakers, butchers, brewers, granaries, houses, cemeteries, and probably even some sorts of health-care facilities—there is evidence of laborers surviving crushed or amputated limbs. Bakeries excavated near the Great Pyramids could have produced thousands of loaves of bread every week.
An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 workers built the Pyramids at Giza over 80 years. Much of the work probably happened while the River Nile was flooded.
Huge limestone blocks could be floated from quarries right to the base of the Pyramids. The stones would likely then be polished by hand and pushed up ramps to their intended positions.
It took more than manual labor, though. Architects achieved an accurate pyramid shape by running ropes from the outer corners up to the planned summit, to make sure the stones were positioned correctly. And priests-astronomers helped choose the pyramids' sites and orientations, so that they would be on the appropriate axis in relation to sacred constellations.
(Source: 1996-2008 National Geographic Society)
Living in the shadow of past greatness is not always easy.
The pyramids are proof of Egypt’s endurance and what distinguishes it from modern confections, like Saudi Arabia, a nation founded 76 years ago, named after a family and built on oil wealth. But these monuments to Egypt’s early ingenuity are also an ever-present symbol of faded glory. It is hard to escape comparisons between an Egypt that once led the world in almost everything and modern Egypt, where about 40 percent of the population lives on $2 a day.
Cairo is a city of about 18 million people that is layered with history stretching back to the birth of civilization. The ubiquitous nature of antiquities — stick a shovel in the ground almost anywhere and it is difficult not to find something — has helped mold a collective consciousness, a national identity, that is uniquely Egyptian.
Yet growing up and living amid so much history has something to do with that view, too; the abundant antiquities in everyday life are a constant reminder of one’s place in time. People come and go, pharaohs come and go, even President Hosni Mubarak, who has ruled Egypt for 27 years, will go, too (though talk of that certainty is discouraged).
(Source: MICHAEL SLACKMAN, NYTimes.com, November 16, 2008)

Discover more about the pyramids:
Pyramid complexes of Egypt
(From egyptologyonline.com)

From Your Own Computer Through Guardian's Cyber Journey To Egypt:
Tour the Pyramids of Egypt from your computer - Guardian's Egypt
(Source: guardian.net)

Egyptian Pyramids and Temples of Egypt with Maps:
Egyptian Pyramids and Temples of Egypt with Maps
(Source: eyelid.co.uk)

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

THE HUMILIORES AND THE HONESTIORES



The Roman Forum, Rome, Italy.
Photographer: Hans E C Johansson, 2004.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Angled shot of the Colosseum in Rome with a very small moon in frame
Author: Jimmy Walker
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Our world is in a constant process of changing and evolution. Nations rise and fall in a few decades, their egemony dictated by economy, war, great people and sheer destiny.
The roman civilization was the most advanced, in terms of science, society and military organization. Under the lead of real legends like Julius Caesar, Rome managed to expand its borders and culture, eventually reaching the limits of Asia (which was then considered the end of the world).
(Source: 2007 roman-empire.info)
Two thousand years ago, the world was ruled by Rome. From England to Africa and from Syria to Spain, one in every four people on earth lived and died under Roman law. As with many cultures, a person’s quality of life depended in many ways on their rank within the social structure.
Two Romans living at the same time in the same city could have very different lives:

Rich…
For wealthy Romans, life was good. They lived in beautiful houses – often on the hills outside Rome, away from the noise and the smell. They enjoyed an extravagant lifestyle with luxurious furnishings, surrounded by servants and slaves to cater to their every desire. Many would hold exclusive dinner parties and serve their guests the exotic dishes of the day.

…and poor
Poorer Romans, however, could only dream of such a life. Sweating it out in the city, they lived in shabby, squalid houses that could collapse or burn at any moment. If times were hard, they might abandon newborn babies to the streets, hoping that someone else would take them in as a servant or slave. Poor in wealth but strong in numbers, they were the Roman mob, who relaxed in front of the popular entertainment of the time – chariot races between opposing teams, or gladiators fighting for their life, fame and fortune.
Although their lives may have been different, they did have some things in common. In any Roman family life, the head of the household was a man. Although his wife looked after the household, he controlled it. He alone could own property. Only he decided the fate of his children and who they would marry.
(© 2006 Devillier Donegan Enterprises)
Ancient Rome, the homeland of Roman civilization, which, from its beginnings as a settlement of Latin peasants on the banks of the River Tiber around 1000 bc, grew to be the centre of the greatest empire of the ancient world. From about 500 to 300 bc, Roman ways quickly began to dominate the whole of Italy and the Mediterranean fringe and, from about 200 bc to the late 5th century ad, Rome controlled vast territories in Europe, Africa, and Asia. They shared a way of life that, while allowing a great many regional differences, gave to many peoples a common culture that was distinctively Roman.
(Source: Wikipedia, The Free encyclopedia)


The maximum extent of the Roman Empire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Roman history can be divided into three major periods: (1) the monarchy, traditionally founded in connection with the legend of Romulus and Remus (753 B.C.E.), (2) the Roman Republic, established in 509 B.C.E.; and (3) the Roman Empire, which sought to bring peace and order to the faltering Republic in 27 B.C.E., and which lasted until its western lands began to fall to Germanic invaders from the north in the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries C.E.
During the later period of the Roman Republic Rome gained control over the Hellenistic empires surrounding the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Although Rome was unable to extend her control as far eastward as the Persians and the Greeks had, the western part of the empire eventually took in Spain, Gaul (modern France), southern Germany, and southern Britain. Each of the Hellenistic empires was subdivided into Roman provinces in the second and first centuries B.C.E. The formation of Syria as a Roman province brought Palestine under Roman control in 63.


Provinces of the Roman Empire
From UNRV.com


The vast extension of Roman power over the whole Mediterranean region put an immense strain on the Roman Republic. New tax revenues and interest created an expanded economy, a higher standard of living, and a new wealthy class at Rome. But it also brought political corruption, social dislocation, and moral decline. Political bribery was common; abused slaves on the countryside plantations revolted and were often joined by the oppressed poor. Traditional Roman respect for family gave way to childless marriages, divorce, adultery, prostitution, and pederasty. Exploits abroad created instability at home; a highly centralized, stronger role seemed necessary, and eventually the Romans looked more and more to the military.


The maximum extent of the Roman Empire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


What was daily life in the Greco-Roman world like? Generally speaking, safe travel became possible as it had never been possible before, but with it came the spread of disease. Physicians and healers of all sorts were in great demand. There were many advantages of city life, but at the same time the problem of feeding the increasing urban populations was never adequately solved and famine was an ever-recurring possibility. War was prevalent until the Augustan peace in 27 B.C.E.; thereafter it was confined largely to securing the frontiers--an exception being the wars with the Jews in 66-70 C.E. The practice of enslaving conquered populations was common, and slaves made up a sizable proportion of the population, especially in Rome. It should be realized that though slaves were often abused on some of the plantations, loyal slaves were sometimes given their freedom while those who became secretaries, domestics, tutors, or financial overseers could occasionally accumulate enough money to purchase freedom. The emperor's slaves held especially influential and powerful positions in government. Still, slaves were chattel and their legal rights were limited. There were no great political movements to abolish the institution.
Below the slave on the social ladder were the free poor who could barely subsist from day to day. The vast wealth of the empire was controlled by a few aristocrats, who often gained honor and status with their public works and philanthropic deeds, but the gap between rich and poor remained great.
(Written by Dennis Duling of Canisius College and was published in his 2nd edition of Norman Perrin and Dennis Duling, The New Testament: An Introduction, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,1982.
A gap of 2,000 years may seem to have put the Romans at a safe distance from our own lives and experience, but modern Europe with its Union is unthinkable without the Roman Empire. It is part of the story of how we came to be what we are.
The Romans are important as a conscious model, for good or ill, to successive generations. Why do they have such a powerful hold on our imaginations? What attracts us to them, or repulses us? What do they have in common with us, and what makes them different?
A century ago, for imperialist Britain (and for other European states with imperial ambitions), the Roman Empire represented a success story. Rome's story of conquest, at least in Europe and around the Mediterranean, was imitated, but never matched, by leaders from Charlemagne to Napoleon. The dream that one could not only conquer, but in so doing create a Pax Romana, a vast area of peace, prosperity and unity of ideas, was a genuine inspiration.
One of the most astonishing features of the Roman Empire is the sheer diversity of the geographical and cultural landscapes it controlled. It was a European empire in the sense that it controlled most of the territory of the member states of the present EU, except part of Germany and Scandinavia.
We are left with a paradox. The Roman Empire set up and spread many of the structures on which the civilisation of modern Europe depends; and through history it provided a continuous model to imitate. Yet many of the values on which it depended are the antithesis of contemporary value-systems. It retains its hold on our imaginations now, not because it was admirable, but because despite all its failings, it held together such diverse landscape for so long.
By Professor Andrew Wallace-Hadrill,
'Roman Empire: The Paradox of Power"
Published 2001-06-01
(Source: bbc.co.uk/history)
Which nation is like the Roman Empire?
Which nation has garrisoned its troops all over the world?
Who are like the Romans?
Some are; some are like the Roman Senators of the fifth century, one of the most rapacious and ruthless ruling classes that ever held power.
Roman Senators were selfish and self-absorbed, determined to hoard the huge wealth of the empire and determined to promote empire to enhance their wealth even further. The common people lost all power and were lucky if they had enough to eat (they were the humiliores, literally the humble, as opposed to the honestiores, the honored).
The Roman Empire fell because it was bankrupted by its leaders.
Both Romans and now some have had the misfortune of being ruled by a Selfish Class. Rome fell because of it. Will we replay the Fall of Rome?
What the Senators didn't realize was that the fall of Rome was only the beginning of a process that would end with almost all of their families gone, their riches dispersed, and Italy plunged into chaos for hundreds of years. The Senate did continue to meet for another sixty years, but except for its one pivotal moment in 476, the Senate had not exercised any power for many hundreds of years, having handed it over to the strongmen who called themselves Emperor, and now King.
The latter years of the Roman Empire are a catalog of disasters brought on by incompetent governments ruled over by incompetent autocrats, and it looks like we're following down the same road.
(By Douglas C.Smyth in roman-empire-america-now.com)

Outlines of Roman History
by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L.
New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: American Book Company (1901)

The Private Life of the Romans
by Harold Whetstone Johnston, Revised by Mary Johnston
Scott, Foresman and Company (1903, 1932)

http://www.freestockphotos.com/Rome.html
Huge archive of pictures from Rome
FreeStockPhotos.com

http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHrome.html#Roman
Images from archaeological remains from ancient Rome
© Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe
(Source: forumromanum.org)

Pictures from the Empire
Photos of sites from the Roman empire
(Source: roman-empire.net)

http://psc.photoshelter.com/image/PSC000604077
Roman Photos
(Source: photoshelter.com)

Monday, November 17, 2008

GUERRILLERO HEROICO (THE HEROIC GUERRILLA)




Che Guevara at the La Coubre memorial service
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Alberto Korda took this popular photograph for a Cuban newspaper on 5 March 1960, at a memorial service in Havana. Mr Korda still has the photograph's negative and the camera that took it. Che Guevara was a key figure in Cuba's 1959 revolution alongside Fidel Castro, who still rules the country. When Che Guevara was killed by the Bolivian army in October 1967, he was hailed a martyr to the revolution. The photo has been a rallying image in student revolts ever since.


A 22 year old Ernesto Guevara in 1951 while in Argentina
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Ernesto Guevara de la Serna or Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, politician, author, physician, military theorist, and guerrilla leader. After his death, his stylized image became a ubiquitous countercultural symbol worldwide.
Che Guevara wrote in 1960:
"After graduation, due to special circumstances and perhaps also to my character, I began to travel throughout America, and I became acquainted with all of it. Except for Haiti and Santo Domingo, I have visited, to some extent, all the other Latin American countries. Because of the circumstances in which I traveled, first as a student and later as a doctor, I came into close contact with poverty, hunger and disease; with the inability to treat a child because of lack of money; with the stupefaction provoked by the continual hunger and punishment, to the point that a father can accept the loss of a son as an unimportant accident, as occurs often in the downtrodden classes of our American homeland. And I began to realize at that time that there were things that were almost as important to me as becoming famous for making a significant contribution to medical science: I wanted to help those people"
Some view Che Guevara as a hero; for example, Nelson Mandela referred to him as "an inspiration for every human being who loves freedom" while Jean-Paul Sartre described him as "not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age." Guevara remains a beloved national hero to many in Cuba, where his image adorns the 3 $ Cuban Peso and school children begin each morning by pledging "We will be like Che."
In his native homeland of Argentina, where high schools bear his name, numerous Che museums dot the country, which in 2008 unveiled a 12 foot bronze statue of him in his birth city of Rosario. Additionally, Guevara has been sanctified by some Bolivian campesinos as "Saint Ernesto", to whom they pray for assistance.
Conversely, others view him as a spokesman for a failed ideology and as a ruthless executioner. Johann Hari, for example, writes that "Che Guevara is not a free-floating icon of rebellion. He was an actual person who supported an actual system of tyranny." Detractors have also theorized that in much of Latin America, Che-inspired revolutions had the practical result of reinforcing brutal militarism for many years. He also remains a hated figure amongst many in the Cuban exile community, who view him with animosity as "the butcher of La Cabaña."
Moreover, Guevara has ironically been subsumed by the capitalist consumer culture he despised. The primary variable of this phenomenon has been a monochrome graphic of his face, which has become one of the World's most universally merchandized images, found on an endless array of items including: t-shirts, hats, posters, tattoos, and even bikinis. Yet, Guevara also remains an iconic figure both in specifically political contexts and as a wide-ranging popular icon of youthful rebellion.
(Source: BBC News Online)
V. SRIDHAR wrote about Alberto Korda, the photographic chronicler of the Cuban revolution in Frontline, Volume 19 - Issue 25, December 07 - 20, 2002, India's National Magazine, publishers of THE HINDU:
'THIRTY-FIVE years after his death, Ernesto Che Guevara, the popular revolutionary hero who was killed by the trained militiamen in the Bolivian jungles in 1967, continues to inspire people aspiring for social change. His extraordinary courage and passionate devotion to the cause of social change throughout the world have made him a revolutionary icon. Nothing symbolises this better than a photograph of him taken at a memorial service on March 5, 1960, in Havana, Cuba. No other image — apart from the one of Marilyn Monroe standing at a subway grid — has been reproduced as many times in history. That photograph of Che, with his long hair flowing from underneath his beret with a star affixed to it, his eyes gazing into the distance, can be found on posters, subway walls and countless consumer articles such as T-shirts, mugs, key chains, wallets and cigarette lighters all over the world. It also adorns walls across Cuba where Che is loved for the part he played in the cause of the revolution. However, the man who took that photograph, Alberto Diaz Gutierrez, known to the world as Alberto Korda, never made anything for himself from the image he gave the world.

Che Guevara Internet Archive:
Books:
1952: The Motorcycle Diaries [partial transcription] 1963: Our America and Theirs [partial transcription] 1963: Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War [partial transcription] 1967: The Che Reader [partial transcription] 1967: The Bolivian Diary [partial transcription]

Documents:
April 18, 1959: Abstract of: A New Old Interview August 19, 1960: On Revolutionary Medicine October 8, 1960: Notes for the Study of the Ideology of the Cuban Revolution March 28, 1961: Mobilising the Masses for the Invasion April 9, 1961: Cuba: Exceptional Case or Vanguard in the Struggle Against Colonialism? August 8, 1961: On Growth and Imperialism September, 1962: The Cadres: Backbone of the Revolution 1963: Guerrilla war, a method [note: not to be confused with his famous book on the subject.] March 25, 1964: On Development December 11, 1964: Colonialism is Doomed February, 1965: Second Economic Seminar of the Organization of Afro-Asian Solidarity March, 1965: Man and Socialism in Cuba April 1, 1965: Farewell letter from Che to Fidel Castro April 16, 1967: Message to the Tricontinental
(Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)


Stylized image of Che Guevara
Image frompicoodle.com